**Types of Scales in Surveying**

Survey area is very large so it is not possible to make a full size drawing. For suitability, it is generally required to draw them to a reduced size, this process is called “drawing to scale”.

There are two types of scales used in surveying.

- Numerical Scale
- Graphical Scale

**Numerical Scale**

Numerical scales are classified into two general types.

- Engineer’s Scale
- Fraction Scale

**Engineer’s Scale**

In an engineer’s scale, the scale of drawing is the proportion which every distance on drawing bears to the corresponding distance on the field.

For example, 1 cm = 5 m

This means, 1 cm on the drawing shows 5 m on the ground, the scale of drawing is 5 m to 1 cm.

**Fraction Scale**

The fraction is known as “Representative Fraction” or RF. Representative Fraction (RF) is the ratio of the distance on the drawing to the corresponding distance on the field taken as the same units. Scale of 1 cm = 100 m, 1 cm on the drawing represents 100 m (10,000 cm) on the field. So, the Representative Fraction (RF) is 1/10000 or 1:10000.

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**Graphical Scale**

A graphical scale is a line drawn on the drawing so that its map distance with respect to a convenient unit of length on the field.

Purpose of Survey |
Scale |
R.F |

Building Site | 1 cm = 10 m | 1:1000 |

Town Planning, Reservoir Planning etc. | 1 cm = 50 m to 1 cm = 100 m | 1:5000 to 1:10000 |

Route Survey | 1 cm = 10 m to 1 cm = 60 m | 1:1000 to 1:6000 |

Longitudinal Sections | 1 cm = 1 m to 1 cm = 10 m | 1:100 to 1:1000 |

Cross Sections | 1 cm = 1 m | 1:100 |

Land Surveys/ Cadastral Survey | 1 cm = 10 m to 1 cm = 50 m | 1:1000 to 1:5000 |

Topographical Maps | 1 cm = 0.25 km to 1 cm = 2.5 km | 1:25000 to 1:250000 |

Geographical Maps | 1 cm = 5 km to 1 cm = 150 km | 1:500000 to 1:15000000 |

Mine Surveys | 1 cm = 10 m to 1 cm = 25 m | 1:1000 to 1:2500 |

Forest Maps | 1 cm = 250 m | 1:25000 |

**FAQs**

#### What is a scale in a survey?

Survey area is very large so it is not possible to make a full size drawing. For suitability, it is generally required to draw them to a reduced size, this process is called “drawing to scale”.

#### What are the three scales used in surveying?

Numerical Scales - 1. Engineer's Scale and 2. Fraction Scale Graphical Scales

#### What is RF in surveying?

The fraction is known as “Representative Fraction” or RF. Representative Fraction (RF) is the ratio of the distance on the drawing to the corresponding distance on the field taken as the same units. Scale of 1 cm = 100 m, 1 cm on the drawing represents 100 m (10,000 cm) on the field. So, the Representative Fraction (RF) is 1/10000 or 1:10000.

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