There are different **methods of levelling** used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different elevation points w.r.t a fixed point. **Methods of levelling** are useful in various construction works where levels of various structures are required to be managed as per drawing.

**What is Levelling?**

**Levelling** is an important branch of the surveying field to measure levels of various points w.r.t a fixed point like elevation of building, height of one point from ground etc.

**Methods of Levelling Used in Surveying**

There are **various methods of levelling** used in surveying.

- Simple Levelling
- Differential Levelling
- Fly Levelling
- Profile Levelling
- Precise Levelling
- Reciprocal Levelling
- Trigonometric Levelling
- Barometric Levelling
- Stadia Levelling

**Simple Levelling**

Simple levelling is a basic method of levelling used in surveying. In a simple levelling method, the levelling instrument is kept between the points which elevation is to find. Levelling staff are placed at that point and take reading through the levelling instrument. It is useful only when the points are nearer to each other and there are no obstacles between them.

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**Differential Levelling**

If the distance between two points is more, a differential levelling method is useful. In this method, the number of inter stations are fixed and the levelling instrument is shifted to each inter station and taken reading the elevation of the inter station points.

**Fly Levelling**

Fly levelling method is useful when the original benchmark is so far from the workstation. In fly levelling, a temporary bench mark is established at the workstation which is fixed based on the original benchmark. Even fly levelling is not more accurate and it is useful to determine approximate level.

**Profile Levelling**

Profile levelling method is useful to determine elevation of points along a line like for rivers, roads and railways etc. In profile levelling, readings of intermediate stations are taken and RL (Reduced Level) of each station is determined.

**Precise Levelling**

Precise levelling is the same as differential levelling method but in this method, higher precision is required. To obtain a high precise, accurate observation system is performed.

**Reciprocal Levelling**

Reciprocal levelling is useful when it is not possible to place the levelling instrument between the points. This method is used in case of rivers, ponds, lakes etc.

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**Trigonometric Levelling**

It is also known as indirect levelling. In this method, the difference between elevation points is determined from the measured distance and observed vertical angles.

Trigonometric levelling is commonly used in topographic surveying to find out the elevation of the top of buildings, spires and chimneys etc.

**Barometric Levelling**

In this method, Barometer is used to determine atmospheric pressure at any altitude. In barometric levelling, the difference of elevation points is determined based on atmospheric pressure readings. This method gives less accuracy and is rarely used.

**Stadia Levelling**

Stadia levelling is an advanced form of trigonometric levelling. In this method, the tacheometry principle is used to find the difference of elevation points. Stadia levelling is useful for hilly areas.

**FAQs**

#### What are the methods of levelling?

There are various methods of levelling used in surveying. 1) Simple Levelling 2) Differential Levelling 3) Fly Levelling 4) Profile Levelling 5) Precise Levelling 6) Reciprocal Levelling 7) Trigonometric Levelling 8) Barometric Levelling 9) Stadia Levelling

#### What is called levelling?

Levelling is an important branch of the surveying field to measure levels of various points w.r.t a fixed point like elevation of building, height of one point from ground etc.

**Refference **

- “Surveying” by Punmia B C

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